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Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):1-3
Current Research in the Virtual Curation Laboratory @ Virginia Commonwealth University: Introduction to the Collected Papers
Bernard K. Means

The Virtual Curation Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) was established in August 2011 with funding from the Department of Defense's (DoD) Legacy Program as Project #11-334 and in cooperation with Marine Corps Base Quantico (MCBQ) (Means et al. 2013). The overall project was initially proposed by then MCBQ archaeologist John Haynes and was implemented under my direction at VCU. The initial task for the Virtual Curation Laboratory was to examine the effectiveness and usefulness of the NextEngine Desktop 3D scanner for enhancing DoD compliance with historic preservation legislation. The basic problem to be addressed was ready access to collections by archaeologists so that they could make accurate classifications and comparisons to evaluate the research potential, and therefore the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) eligibility, of sites.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):4-8
Moving Between Reality as Virtual and Reality as Actual
Courtney Bowles

With the increased use and accessibility to 3D images and data, one question can be posed: Will aspiring archaeologists still be drawn into the field when studying virtual models instead of real artifacts? Rising generations are rapidly evolving into one whose understanding of the world is both shaped and experienced through virtual means. What is considered "real" to many is now what is depicted on screens through social media outlets such as Facebook, or avatars in alternate worlds. The concept of reality to which we are familiar is constantly active, "moving between reality as virtual and reality as actual." To a rising youth, virtual is just as real as the objects we live with and handle daily. Therefore, the topologic models of archaeological objects that are increasingly becoming available will hold the interest of prospective archaeologists because what has been created is in every sense a real object.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1)::9-13
Handing the Past to the Present:: The Impact of 3D Printing on Public Archaelology
Allen Huber

The concept of 3D printing in archaeology is quickly gaining attention and funding all over the world. The cost of owning a 3D printer, meanwhile, is plummeting. Not only does this drop in price facilitate access by universities and businesses, but it also does so for interested members of the public. With this in mind, archaeologists must consider the prospect of using new technology to increase the accessibility of sites and artifacts to the general public. By creating reproductions of artifacts, researchers can share sensitive physical information on a larger scale than ever before. The Virtual Curation Laboratory at VCU has already begun the process of printing artifacts for display. Here the focus of 3D printing has been primarily on small finds, being the most detailed and intriguing artifacts available; and, introducing the public to a wider array of these artifacts could help spark a newfound interest in the field of archaeology.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):14-18
New Dimensions: 3D Scanning of lroquoian Effigy Ceramics
Rachael Hulvey

The advent of three-dimensional representations of artifacts promises new opportunities for research regarding Iroquoian effigy faces on ceramics. The Virtual Curation Laboratory at VCU has created digital avatars of effigy faces, and these virtual representations increase access to these artifacts to a wider audience. With an increasingly large database of these effigies, scholars can have easier access to many artifacts, and recognizing trends within the ceramics of a community, between ceramics of different Iroquoian tribes, and with other media­ such as pipe bowls-is made simpler. Digital representations open new avenues to showcasing research to the general public. Anyone interested can virtually manipulate sherds that are too fragile for excessive handling and feel involved with archaeological research.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):19-22
Rocky Raccoon: The Application of 3D Technology to Zooarchaeology
Mariana Zechini

In Fall 2012, elements of a raccoon skeleton loaned from the Virginia Museum of Natural History and the California University of Pennsylvania were scanned and transformed into three-dimensional (3D) digital models in the Virtual Curation Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University. The purpose was to study and learn about the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D-scanning technology on faunal remains and to promote the virtualization of zooarchaeological data.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):23-26
Who Benefits from Virtual Curation?
Bernard K. Means

As our Department of Defense (DoD) Legacy project (#11- 334) has shown (Means et al. 2013) and the preceding papers have demonstrated, creating virtual collections of artifacts provides real and tangible benefits that will help a wide range of individuals interested in the past. Digital models can be avatars for otherwise inaccessible physical objects. The NextEngine Desktop 3D scanner is well suited to meet the virtual curation needs of a wide range of people and institutions, including: cultural resources personnel; curators and collections managers; descendent communities; museums and places of cultural heritage; and educators, students, and researchers. The following section has been modified from that presented in the technical report for our Legacy project, but is included here to ensure that a wider audience of interested professionals is aware of this work.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):27-45
Shenks Ferry Traditional Ceramic Seriation
Jeffrey R. Graybill and James T Herbstritt

This essay analyzes ceramics from a large sample of Shenks Ferry tradition sites, assigns these ceramics to one of several historical types, and employing ceramic frequency seriation, orders these sites in time. Numerous radiocarbon dates are available for the Shenks Ferry site sample and these absolute dates, generally, confirm and reinforce seriation findings. The end result of the study is a well-integrated, relative-absolute Shenks Ferry chronology, amenable to studying late prehistoric cultural change.
Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):46-61
Peri-Susquehannock Pottery of the Tioga River Area, Pennsylvania and New York
Christopher T Espenshade
The study of late pottery recovered from well-dated contexts in three sites in upstate Pennsylvania brings into question the typically assumed typology and chronology for this part of the state. This paper documents the pottery associated with each context, and addresses how these findings question traditional models of Susquehannock development. The assemblages addressed include: the Mature Late Woodland at the Wood site (A.D. 1400-1500); the Mature Late Woodland at the Losey 3 site (A.D. 1300-1450); Peri-Susquehannock at the Losey 3 site (A.D. 1500-1640); and Peri-Susquehannock at the Webster site (A.D. 1500-1640).

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(1):62-75
A Small Prehistoric Mound Group (33-WE-3) In Wayne, County, Northeast Ohio
P. Nick Kardulias, David Taggart, Brittany Rancour, Nigel Brush, Roger Rowe, and Gregory Wiles

While a great deal is known about the many earthworks of central and southern Ohio, there is a gap in our data about such features in the northern part of the state. The present report is an effort to bring work on one such site in Wayne County into the literature. The Pee Wee Hollow Mound group consists of three small circular earthen structures and a possible fortification trench on a high bluff overlooking the main stream that drains the county. Systematic excavation by avocational archaeologists in the 1950s revealed the structure of the mounds and retrieved a small assemblage of artifacts, some charcoal, and pockets of red ochre. Recent analysis of the artifacts, coupled with radiocarbon dating, indicates that the site was a location of some local importance from the Late Archaic through the Middle to Late Woodland periods.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(2):1-35
Another Perspective on "Clemson Island Culture" and the Role of Small Sites in Late Woodland Settlement: The Late Woodland Period Occupation of 36BL112
Paul A. Raber

The early Late Woodland occupation of small camps at 36BL112 along the Little Juniata River in central Pennsylvania offers another perspective on the question of what archaeologists mean by terms like Clemson Island and Stewart phase. A number of such small camps span the time period associated with the Clemson Island and Stewart taxa and document an essentially unchanged way of life from that of the Early and Middle Woodland inhabitants of the region. Although recognized as a Clemson Island settlement type, relatively little attention has been paid to small temporary or resource procurement camps.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(2):36-41
Shenks Ferry Triangles, Seriation, and Dating
Jeffrey R. Graybill, James T Herbstritt, Andrea J. Carr, and Melanie R. Wing

The use of triangular arrow points in dating Shenks Ferry culture sites is discussed. The temporal order that results from seriating triangular points supplements and reinforces an existing Shenks Ferry ceramic seriation.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(2):42-49
Reassessing Peter's Creek and Linn Mounds, Washington County, Pennsylvania
Mark A. McConaughy

Peter's Creek and Linn (36WH36) mounds are located in Washington County, Pennsylvania. Dragoo (1955, 1963) believed both mounds were related to Early Woodland Adena groups based on artifacts recovered from in or near the mounds. A recent reexamination of the artifacts by the author and radiocarbon dating of various mounds types in western Pennsylvania suggest that Peter's Creek and Linn mounds should be placed in the Middle and early Late Woodland periods, respectively.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(2):50-64
A Geophysical Investigation and Cultural Reevaluation of the Monongahela Squirrel Hill Site (36WM35)
Lydia DeHaven

The Squirrel Hill site (36WM35) is one of the defining sites of the Johnston phase (A.D. 1450-1610) of the Monongahela tradition. Limited investigations of the site have taken place, but no notes or to-scale site maps remain. As part of the Johnston phase, the site has also been hypothesized to represent an amalgamation of the Monongahela with the McFate phase of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau tradition. This research addressed two topics: a) the efficiency in using geophysical instruments to relocate prehistoric sites in the region and b) a reevaluation of the site's relation to the Johnston phase and to the McFate phase presence. These research topics were investigated through multiple surveys with different geophysical instruments, excavation, artifact analysis, and accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) radiocarbon dating.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 84(2):65-73
Rejoinder to Sciulli and Purcell: Two Late Prehistoric Dogs from the Reinhardt Site (33PI880), Pickaway County, Ohio 
Kevin C. Nolan and Paul W Sciulli

The Reinhardt site (33PI880) is a Late Prehistoric village that was intensively occupied during the 14th century A.D. Recent investigations by Nolan revealed a planned, organized community. Many features were discovered including two that included dog burials (F6/08 and F33/09). F6/08 yielded a complete, articulated male dog at the bottom of a very deep and dense midden pit. F33/09 contained a young dog near the top of another midden pit. Only the upper 􀂂2/3 of the F33/09 dog was recovered during Nolan's investigations; the dog was also fully articulated.
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