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Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(1):2-38
The Nature And Cultural Meaning Of Early Woodland Mounds In Southwestern Pennsylvania And The Northern Panhandle Of West Virginia
Mark A. McConaughy

The Early Woodland period of the northern West Virginia Panhandle and southwestern Pennsylvania is a period when pottery flrst appears in the region and there is some use of domesticated plants. The period encompasses at least two phases between 3000 and 1500 radiocarbon years B.P. The first has been named the Half-Moon phase. Towards the middle of the period, large burial mounds appear as the local peoples participated in their own version of "Adena," marking the beginnings of the Cresap phase. The mounds appear to be of two forms. One style is for the interment of an important individual or perhaps several individuals in a single, central tomb with accompanying funerary objects. The second type involves the burial of multiple important individuals in separate tombs with accompanying funerary objects within a possible charnel house or structure of some sort. In both cases, people of lesser status may have been buried in the mounds with no or few funerary goods, apparently so they could be near the important individual(s). Does the size of the burial mound also indicate relative status of the interred important individual(s)? These and other questions are addressed.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(1):39-60
"A Fine Place for a Hotel": The Water Street Inn Site (36HU151)
Scott D. Heberling

Historical and archaeological data recovery studies were performed at the Water Street Inn site (36HU151) in northwestern Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. The Inn, in operation from 1842 to the 1970s, enjoyed a decade of early prosperity followed by a long period of decline and then rebirth in the early automobile era. Few rural tavern sites of this period have been investigated in the Middle Atlantic region. The significance of the Water Street Inn site is related to the survival of discrete features and deposits from key points in its history. By comparing the artifacts from various contexts it was possible to examine the process of change through time. The studies yielded new information concerning the operation of a rural Pennsylvania tavern during the 19th and early 20th century, contributing to our understanding of this important but rarely studied historic resource type.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(1):61-69
Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition: The Powell Sites
Bernard K. Means

Powell No. 1 (36S011) and Powell No. 2 (36S012) were excavated by a Work Projects Administration (WPA) crew under the lead of Edgar E. Augustine from January to April of 1938. Augustine reported on these excavations in a descriptive article published that year in Pennsylvania Archaeologist. The two sites were incorporated in Cresson's (1942) unpublished overview of Monongahela excavations and were integrated into Means's (2007) Circular Villages of the Monongahela Tradition. The current article provides additional information on both sites that was not presented in the latter work.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(1):70-76
Henry Fleet's Journal and the Languages of Pennsylvania
David J. Sorg

The journal kept by fur trader Henry Fleet in 1631-1632 is of major importance for the understanding of the languages spoken in the southwestern Pennsylvania area at the time of European contact.  This journal contains apparently the only documentation of words of these languages recorded as spoken by the peoples themselves.  A microfilm copy of Fleet's  handwritten journal is commercially available, and this article will discuss the handwritten text and some possible minor transliteration errors in the available printed versions.  The corrections strengthen the translations previously proposed and suggest Fleet was a better phonetician than the printed texts indicate.  I will also discuss the town name "Mosticum" and demonstrate that it is possible to interpret relict native words as belonging to either the Algonquian or lroquoian language families. A general outline of the languages of Pennsylvania is thus possible.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(2):2-17
A Pillar of Cloud by Day and of Fire by Night: A Landscape Study of the Harrisburg Nail Works
Jonathan Libbon

The city of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and the surrounding region  rapidly  industrialized throughout the late nineteenth century. The close proximity to the natural resources and major east coast markets placed Harrisburg at the forefront of the American industriai revolution. The Harrisburg Nail Works represented one of the largest industrial complexes in the Harrisburg region during this time. The owners of the Harrisburg Nail Works designed a factory system that stressed surveillance and control, and dramatically altered the surrounding landscape to extend the surveillance and control outside of the factory grounds.  Understanding how the owners of the Harrisburg Nail Works changed the landscape from space into place can provide insight into overt and covert forms of control utilized by the management of the factory.  It can also be a starting point in understanding the community's response to industrialization and how the city and region were shaped in the past, and how the past affects the present and the future.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(2):18-24
Flotation and Analysis of Organic Materials Recovered from Excavations at the Montgomery Site (36CH60),  Chester County, Pennsylvania
Marshall Joseph Becker

The Montgomery Site (36CH60), utilized as a warm weather fishing station by the Brandywine band of Lenape during the colonial period (Becker 2006), has provided important insights into Native American lifestyle in the Philadelphia region during the early part of the eighteenth century. The excavations discussed here focused on the burial area used during the period from about 1720 to 1733.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(2):25-46
The Late Woodland Period in Western Pennsylvania
Mark A. McConaughy

The Late Woodland period (AD 400 and 1000) is an important transition stage between the Middle Woodland and Late Prehistoric periods in western Pennsylvania. The bow-and-arrow and cultivation of Northern Flint maize are believed to have been introduced during this interval, while participation in the Hopewellian trade network ceased. This paper will examine the Late Woodland phases from western Pennsylvania and how they relate to the following Late Prehistoric inhabitants of the region.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 85(2):47-62
Glass, Floods, and Gov'ment Work: Finding Blairsville's Industrial Past
Hannah E. Harvey

Located along the Conemaugh River in Indiana County, Blairsville's riverfront property was once home to productive industries. Today, all but the faintest vestiges of its dynamic heritage are obscured by forest growth. Of particular interest is the history of the Columbia Plate Glass Company, which operated from 1903 to 1935. During this time, the glass factory provided a major boost to the local economy and supported the growth of a village of workers' housing known as Tin Town. Broadly speaking, the factory's importance is also tied in with trends in labor movements and the expanding automobile industry. Shortly after the factory's abandonment the site was purchased by the federal government as part of a regional flood control project. This paper explores the site's history, federal management, current integrity as assessed by LiDAR and field-checking, and potential direction of future research.

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