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Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 1-24
Excavations at the Mathies Mine Mound (36WH29), Washington County, Pennsylvania
Donald Tanner, William Tippins, Robert Laidig, and Mark McConaughy

In 1962, Donald Tanner and others conducted test excavations at the Mathies Mine Mound (36WH29) in Washington County, Pennsylvania. The excavations showed that the mound consisted primarily of an earthen Early Woodland Cresap phase Adena burial mound, with a major tomb, two burials, and a crematory basin. In association with Burial I were a number of artifacts including a rare expanded bit stone tubular pipe, with carbonized residue adhered to the interior of the pipe. This residue recently tested positive for nicotine (Rafferty et al. 2012), indicating that a species of tobacco was smoked in the pipe. A deer bone fragment in association with Burial l was recently AMS dated to 2190 ± 20 rcy B.P. (ISGS-A1849). While the primary burial mound was earthen and built in the Early Woodland period, the mound was used again late in the Middle Woodland period when the northeastern portion of the mound was capped with stone slabs. Fragmented humans remains of at least three individuals were recovered beneath the stone cap. Charcoal associated with Burial 5 from under the stone cap was AMS dated to 1630 ± 20 rcy B.P. (ISGS-A2178). This report presents Donald Tanner's discoveries during the 1962-63 investigation, as well as new data from the site.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 25-31
Hartman 's Cave (3 6MR022 1 ): A Crossroads for Victorian Period Archaeologists, Paleontologists and a Botanist
Thomas R. Lewis

Hartman 's Cave (36MR22 1 ), a prehistoric arch aeological site and Pleistocene-Ho locene age bone bed in Monroe County, Pennsylvania, was investigated on four separate occasions during the years 1 8 79 to 1 923. After the last investigation, conducted by Max Schrabisch in 1 923, the paleontological and archaeological history of the cave was largely forgotten for 86 years until it was rediscovered in the year 2009. Today the cave is owned by the Pocono Heritage Land Trust and maintained by the Nature Conservancy. The entrance to the cave is fenced off to protect the resident bat population. It appears that the investigations of the past have practically removed all vestiges of the former bone bed and archaeological site. The importance of the site lies in its association with Victorian period scholars-heavy weights of their day and m aj or contributors to the formation of modem American archaeology, paleontology, and botany: William Henry Holmes, Henry C. Mercer, Max Schrabisch, Joseph Leidy, Edward Drinker Cope, and Thomas C. Porter

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 32-46
Preliminary Alluvial Geoarchaeology of 36F066 (Indian Camp Run 2), Forest County, Pennsylvania
Todd Grote and Andrew Myers

A prelimi nary geoarchaeological study of 36F066 (Indian Camp Run 2) is presented here in the context of soi l-landform evolution and site formation processes. Indian Camp Run 2 is a multi­ component site along the Upper Al legheny River that contains Late Archaic through Late Woodland cultural assemblages within weakly to moderately developed soil horizons. A disconformity occurs within the soil-sediment sequence that separates upper and lower soil stratigraphic units. The highest artifact density occurs within the upper 20-40 em of the sequence in association with mixed Early through Late Woodland cultural components. The mixed and compressed Woodland components suggest very low rates of alluviation and a stable landform suitable for occupation over the past few thousand years. However, the vertical separation between time-diagnostic Late Archaic and initial Early Woodland artifacts within the lower soil stratigraphic unit suggests higher rates of al luviation and only an intermittent cultural presence. A single AMS assay determined on charcoal from below the deepest Late Archaic time-diagnostic artifact indicates the landform has been vertically accreting for more than 5,300 years. Late Holocene pedogenisis has kept pace or outpaced alluviation, thus overprinting the geological and archaeological records at 36F066.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 47-65
Preliminary Bioarchaeological Examination of the Quaker Hills Quarry (36LA1100) Skeletal Sample: A Funk Phase Shenks Ferry Site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Dana D. Kollmann

This report details the examination of 15 human skeletons recovered from the Quaker Hills Quarry site (36LA1100) in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Individuals in this series include 4 males, 5 females, and 6 individuals of indeterminate sex. The age distribution is as follows : 3 infants, 3 children, 4 young adults, and 5 older adults. Bone preservation is moderate to poor and none of the skeletons are complete. Whi le the degree of bone preservation precludes a detailed assessment of the remains, skeletal health appears to be generally good. There is little evidence of nutritional or infectious pathology, and the incidence oftrauma is low. The majority of the identified il lness is attributed to age-related degenerative processes and dental pathology is associated with a diet that is moderately rich in carbohydrates.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 66-73
Susquehannock Material Culture Revisited: Eight Pennsylvania Ethnographic Artifacts in the Skokloster Castle Collection in Sweden and a Possible Connection to Capt. John Smith
Marshal Joseph Becker

Some important Susquebannock ethnographic artifacts from 17th century Pennsylvania that now are in the Skokloster Castle collection in Sweden are discussed. The similarity of some of these artifacts to objects worn by the Susquenbannock native in Captain John Smith's (1612) map of Virginia appears to be more than coincidence.

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(1): 74-78
Fluted Points from the Loyalhanna Creek Watershed, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Robert Oshnock

Eleven Paleoindian projectile points from the Loyalhanna Creek watershed of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, are presented and discussed.

2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):1-16
Paleoindian "Lithic Scatters" in the Ten Mile Creek Watershed
Christine Davis, Philip Glauberman, and Ryan Parish

The Prosperity site (36WH 1 408) and John I. Dunn site (36GR96/36WH706) were discovered during a cultural resource survey conducted by Christine Davis Consultants in southern Washington County and northern Greene County. A total of 52 archaeological sites were recorded during the survey, including 40 upland "lithic scatters." Additional survey conducted on two of these "lithic scatters" resulted in the recovery of significant Paleoindian components, although neither site conformed to traditional settlement pattern models for this period.
2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):17-33
The Middle Woodland: Western Pennsylvania vs.Eastern Pennsylvania
Mark A. McConaughy
The Middle Woodland in western Pennsylvania has been defined as an overly long time period that includes several diverse cultures. Mayer-Oakes ( 1955) placed it between the Early Woodland Adena and Late Prehistoric Monongahela based on remains from a few stratified sites. Kent et al. ( 1971 ) more generally dated the Middle Woodland period of Pennsylvania between 500 B.C. and A.D. 1 000. The starting date for the Middle Woodland in Kent et al. (1971 ) is much too early. However, the dates follow Middle Atlantic conventions for the Middle Woodland period. Unfortunately, western Pennsylvania cultures are more closely aligned with those from the Midwest than the Middle Atlantic. The Middle Woodland period in the Midwest largely covers the time when the Hopewell Interaction Sphere was active. It runs from approximately 200 B .C . to A.D. 400. Cultural participation in the Hopewell Interaction Sphere network provides a method for more clearly delineating the Middle Woodland period in western Pennsylvania. It is proposed that Middle Woodland period of western Pennsylvania be defined based on its participation in the Hopewell Interaction Sphere and separated from that of eastern Pennsylvania and its connection with the Middle Atlantic system.
2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):34-43
Finding Fort Machault (36VE212)
Brian L . Fritz and William Black
Fort Machault (36VE212) is one of only four French forts that were built in Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War (1753-1763). Based on historical documents and maps it is believed that Fort Machault was located on the west bank of the Allegheny River in what is today the town of Franklin. An archaeological survey was conducted in 2007 to find evidence for the location of Fort Machault and to determine the potential extent to which cultural deposits associated with the fort may have survived modern urban development. A bucket auger survey was chosen as an expedient method for sampling a large area while minimizing disruption to property owners. Examined soil profiles revealed evidence of cultural features and possible French and Indian War era artifacts within an area adjacent to the west side of Elk Street and south of an old stream channel that has been filled in by modem landscaping.
2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):44-53
Early Woodland Features at the Consol Site (36WM100), Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Robert Oshnock
Four very similar Early Woodland period features at the Consol site (36WM100) are presented and discussed. Although the main occupations on the site relate to a series of Late Prehistoric Monongahela villages, there is evidence that the site was also occasionally visited in the Early Woodland period. Documented Early Woodland sites are rare in southwestern Pennsylvania. It is hoped that this report will add insight into Early Woodland period settlement and subsistence patterns in the area.
2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):54-63
We Had Everything but Money: A Study of Buying Strategies at a Civilian Conservation Corps Camp in the Allegheny National Forest
Jonathan R. Libbon
The Great Depression, the worst economic depression in American history, was a time of extreme poverty for many Pennsylvanians. The research presented here focuses on using archaeology to gain a better appreciation of the individuals enrolled in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) during this time. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to understand how consumer behavior changed in the Great Depression and the economic influence of enlistment in the CCC. Excavations were carried out at a CCC camp in the Allegheny National Forest, and the results of these excavations were then synthesized with findings from excavations at two other CCC camps, two Depression-era domestic sites, and two pre-Depression era domestic sites. The outcome is an in-depth understanding of buying strategies in the 1930s and the effect that the Great Depression had on them.
2012 Pennsylvania Archaeologist 82(2):64-70
A Preliminary Model for the Alligewi Tribe
David J. Sorg
The semi-legendary Alligewi tribe is the source of the place-name "Allegheny" in western Pennsylvania but very little is known about the Alligewi. This article reviews the literature and concludes that they were a small tribe absorbed into the incoming Unami Delaware people in the 18th century. A study of protolanguages also leads the author to propose that they were Algonquian speakers.
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