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Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(1):2-38
The Edinburg Site, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania
Richard T. Gartley, Jeff Carskadden,  and James F. Morton

The Edinburg site, located along the Mahoning River near the town of Edinburg in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, is one of the  type sites for the Edinburg phase of the Jack's Reef horizon (ca. A.D. 700- A.D. 1000).   Although the site has been alluded to by a number of researchers, beginning with William J. Mayer-Oakes in 1955, the history of archaeological activities at the site over the years has never been fully published.  This article discusses these activities and describes a collection of ceramics and chipped and ground stone artifacts collected at the site in the 1960s.
 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(1):39-74
The Prehistory of Fort Hunter:  Recent Investigation of 36DA159
Paul A. Raber

Recent  archaeological  studies  at  36DA159,  the  Fort  Hunter  site, provide  a  glimpse  into  the  deep  history of  the  site.  For the  past decade, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission has conducted annual excavations at the site of French and Indian War period  Fort  Hunter  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  River, exposing eighteenth and nineteenth century components but also a record of site use extending to the Early Archaic and Paleoindian periods. In connection with proposed park improvements, archaeological studies examined a portion of the prehistoric site that extends across most of the Pleistocene terrace above the river's edge. The studies  complement the PHMC's  investigations  by elaborating on the site's  stratigraphy, defining the extent, date and nature of the prehistoric occupation of the terrace, and allowing an intensive examination of tool stone processing and procurement.
 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(1):75-78
The Martz Rock Shelters
Edgar E. Augustine and
Bernard K. Means

Administration (WPA) excavations in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, from the mid-1930s until the early 1940s. These WPA-funded excavations included the Martz Rock Shelter sites in  1938. The text presented here is from his unpublished manuscript on these two sites, a portion of which was published in 1938 in The Pennsylvania  Archaeologist.  Following the presentation of the manuscript are a few comments by Bernard K. Means, who has been researching the Somerset County, Pennsylvania, New Deal archaeology excavations for a number of years.
 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(2):2-20
New AMS Dates on the CRESAP Mound (46MR7)
William H. Tippins, Richard W. Lang, Mark A. McConaughy

The Cresap Mound (46MR7) in Marshall County, West Virginia, was excavated in 1958 by Don W. Dragoo of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. The results of Dragooís excavation became the focal point of his 1963 book, Mounds for the Dead: An Analysis of the Adena Culture. Although the Cresap Mound provided a wealth of data, Dragoo was unable to obtain satisfactory radiocarbon dates on the various building episodes at the site. The Cresap Mound, although no longer in existence, continues to stand as one of the most important Adena sites ever excavated in the Ohio Valley. In an attempt to shed new light on the temporal origins of the mound, the authors of this report conducted an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating project on nine samples from the Cresap Mound curated at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Four out of the nine samples provided useful new data on early building episodes at the site, which apparently occurred during a relative short interval within the Cresap phase of the Early Woodland period. Unfortunately, no satisfactory assays were obtained on later building episodes at the Cresap Mound, so the total duration of the moundís use remains uncertain. The new data presented in this report should allow researchers to have a better understanding of the moundís temporal origins.
 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(2):21-40
The Buffalo Creek Chert of Washington County, Pennsylvania
Brian L. Fritz, William H. Tippins, Kenneth F. Fischer

An unidentified black chert found on sites located in the Buffalo Creek drainage of Washington County, Pennsylvania has long been known to local artifact collectors as Buffalo Creek chert. This coarsegrained, dark gray to black chert is the dominant lithic material on sites located near Acheson and Dunsfort. An organized effort to locate geological sources of the chert was successful in identifying two chert source locations. Dark gray to black chert collected from one geological source near Acheason matches well with the black Buffalo Creek chert found on nearby archaeological sites. The study demonstrates how a systematic effort is needed to identify and locate small lithic sources, and how failure to recognize small lithic sources could lead to misinterpretations of archaeological sites.
 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist 86(2):41-72
The Allegheny Cultural Divide of Southwestern Pennsylvania
Brian L. Fritz

Archaeologists have long recognized cultural differences in the archaeological record between sites in the Ohio River basin and the Susquehanna River basin, and the presence of an east-west cultural divide across the Allegheny Mountain region of southwestern Pennsylvania. The cultural distribution of Shriver and Loyalhanna chert was used to test spatial interaction or gravity models across the Allegheny Front and high mountain ridges of the Somerset Plateau. The model predicts the location of a boundary or breaking point that marks a point of equal influence between the two lithic source localities. The western extent of other lithic types and artifact types associated with the Susquehanna River basin also correspond to this lithic source boundary. The evidence supports the presence of an east-west cultural divide or boundary. Contrary to established perspectives, this cultural divide does not correspond to the prominent landscape feature known as the Allegheny Front.
 

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